Episode 705: Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng - Building Science & Wood: A Balanced Design Approach

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Episode 705: Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng - Building Science & Wood: A Balanced Design Approach

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Show Resources: Show Discussion:

12:04:08 From Doug’s iPad : Brazilian IPE
12:05:17 From cliff zlotnik : trivia- name the hard and durable wood that sinks in water due to its density, has a class A fire rating and was used to construct the Coney Island Boardwalk?
12:05:40 From cliff zlotnik : correct doug, send your contact info
12:06:03 From Doug’s iPad : Thanks. Great Question.
12:24:52 From Remmie L Arnold III : is sequestering CO2 same for live wood as dead wood?
12:25:21 From Remmie L Arnold III : Poorly worded question, sorry
12:28:56 From Remmie L Arnold III : around 20 yrs for pulp mills
12:34:15 From Remmie L Arnold III : one pupose is to is to seal in odor
12:45:13 From Gary Loiben : Wouldn't the permeability be very low and difficult to dry?
13:06:22 From Remmie L Arnold III : LOL. need better treatment for fence posts.
13:07:11 From Remmie L Arnold III : thank you Robert.
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RadioJoe
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Re: Episode 705: Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng - Building Science & Wood: A Balanced Design Approach

Post by RadioJoe »

Great job by Rob. We fit in a lot of info over a little over an hour. I learned a lot about wood and a Balanced Design Approach. Wood is an amazing product that is a renewable resource. Unfortunately we are losing a lot of great resources from wildfires.

Environmental Product Declarations was another topic that I enjoyed learning more about. Also very interesting that some wood structures can be fairly fire resistant. Taking into consideration fires, floods and wind will be more and more important as time goes on and insurance costs go up.

Thank you Rob Jonkman!!
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CliffZ
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Re: Episode 705: Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng - Building Science & Wood: A Balanced Design Approach

Post by CliffZ »

IAQ RADIO

Show Number: 705

Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng.
Vice President, Codes Engineering Canadian Wood Council
Building Science & Wood; a Balanced Design Approach


This week we welcomed Rob Jonkman VP of Codes and Engineering at the Canadian Wood Council to discuss Building Science, Wood and A Balanced Design Approach. The Canadian wood industry is a huge driver of construction practices in the US and beyond. We learned about how wood is part of a balanced design approach from someone that has been a mover in the area for years.

After completing a Bachelor of Civil Engineering and Management degree at McMaster University in 1994, Robert worked for one year at a structural engineering consulting firm and over nine years as “Design and Engineering Supervisor” at a Canadian timber frame manufacturer. He joined the Canadian Wood Council in 2005, progressing to “Director, Codes and Standards -Structural Engineering” in 2014, and VP Codes Engineering in 2021. Robert has expertise in structural engineering, building science, and energy issues and active in the Codes and Standards development and with the Canadian Home Builders

Nuggets mined from today’s show:

Please tell us about the Canadian Wood Council- The Canadian Wood Council is an Association of Associations?
Founded in 1959, the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) is Canada’s unifying voice for the wood products industry. As a national federation of associations, our 14 members represent hundreds of manufacturers across the country. For over 60 years, we have supported our members by accelerating market demand for wood products and championed responsible leadership through excellence in codes, standards, and regulations. We also deliver technical knowledge for the construction sector through our market-leading Wood WORKS! initiative.
The Canadian Wood Council (CWC) represents the Canadian wood products industry through a national federation of associations. The CWC provides technical and knowledge transfer services relating to building codes, standards and regulations. The CWC is active in a technical capacity in all areas of the Regulatory System:
• BUILDING CODES – CWC participates extensively in the development process of the Building Codes in Canada.
• DESIGN STANDARDS – CWC holds the Secretariat for Canada’s wood design standard (CSA O86 “Engineering Design in Wood”), providing both technical expertise and administrative support for its development.
• PRODUCT STANDARDS – CWC is involved in the development of Canadian, U.S. and international standards for its wood building product producers.
• TEST STANDARDS – CWC is involved in developing Canadian, U.S. and international test standards in areas that affect wood products, such as fire performance.
There is also an American Wood Board (AWB) how are they different and how do you work together if you do? CWC is a member of AWC. CWC and AWB work closely together.

What is the most common wood used in construction? In Canada --Spruce, Pine and Fir are used in lumber and sheeting products. Canada has simplified speciation by classifying Canadian wood into 4 species groups. In Canada, Spruce, Pine and Fir; woods with similar properties are combined together in 1 grade. This makes design easier as specifiers design with only 4 building properties.

What effect are the 2023 Canadian Wildfires having on Canadian wood resources? The 2023 have so far taken 12X the annual harvest.

What is meant by a balanced design approach? Balancing competing interests when designing buildings:
Resilient Design, Energy Efficient Design, Carbon, Affordable Design, Fire Resistance, Durability.
All six are growing in emphasis. New competing interests are Wind Resilience and Climate Resilience. Immigration is contributing to North America’s growing shortage of affordable housing. Rot prevention is a consideration.

How To Build-In Wind Resistance? Attach roofing to walls, Beef-up Gable Ends, Connect upper roof framing and components to lower, Frame robustly, Use sufficient wall sheathing or Rigid insulation to resist suction, Ensure sufficient sheathing to resist lateral movement, Use wall sheathing or other methods to bridge assemblies to resist uplift, Check entire uplift load path, Make sure roof keeps building dry, Use high strength garage doors, Use high resistance windows. These recommendations were inspired by the Florida Building Code. The concepts are identical with EF-2 (200 kph+ 124.27 mph)

Why care about carbon? 50% of wood is carbon. A tree is a self-replicating, solar powered, CO² storage machine. 1kg of dry wood sequesters 1.83kg of CO².
https://www.weforum.org › agenda › 2021 › 02 › why-the-buildings-of-the-future-are-key-to-an-efficient-energy-ecosystem
Buildings are the foundation of our energy-efficient future.
Buildings are responsible for 40% of global energy consumption and 33% of greenhouse gas emissions. Ensuring new buildings are sustainable and energy-efficient will be key to our efforts to tackle climate change. Green buildings can also benefit employees, bottom lines and investors.
It’s time to consider the impact of materials used in construction. We don’t want to chose solutions with high negative impact on the environment just to reduce operational energy. The focus is decarbonization.

What is the life expectancy of a tree? 40-80 years. 20 years for pulp mills. Harvest at the peak of carbon sequestration phase.

What is cross laminated timber?
https://www.apawood.org › cross-laminated-timber
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) - APA - The Engineered Wood Association
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a large-scale, prefabricated, solid engineered wood panel. Lightweight yet very strong, with superior acoustic, fire, seismic and thermal performance, CLT is also fast and easy to install, generating almost no waste onsite. CLT offers design flexibility and low environmental impacts.

Started in Europe about 15 years ago and in Canada more than 5 years ago. Very little waste. A wheelbarrow full of sawdust all the waste from constructing a 9 story building.


What is Mass Timber Construction?
https://www.american.edu/sis/centers/ca ... timber.cfm
Mass timber construction is a carbon removal technique that involves using specialized wood products to construct buildings, including high-rise buildings. Manufacturers use products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), and glue laminated timber (“glulam”) to produce wood panels and beams, which can replace concrete, steel, and masonry as building materials. Because it displaces emissions-intensive steel and concrete, mass timber can significantly reduce the “embodied carbon” in buildings. Because the wood stores carbon dioxide (CO2) that was captured from the atmosphere via photosynthesis, mass timber construction can function as a form of carbon removal when combined with sustainable timber production and building demolition practices. Other approaches to building with wood may be able to sequester carbon, as well, including in low-rise buildings.

Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) and Dowel Laminated Timber (DLT) also exist. The nails in NLT can damage saws and tools. DLT doesn’t damage saws and tools. There is a new standard for nail laminated timber (NLT)

How high can you build with wood? Royal Albert Hotel in Australia is 9 stories and over 100 years old. A warehouse in Vancouver, Canada is 7 stories and over 100 years old. Brock Commons UBC, Vancouver, Canada is 18 stories, 1 concrete and 17 wood. Construction of a 300 meter building is planned for London, England.

Why Wood? Benefits include: Carbon sequestering, Natural insulator, Good strength to weight ratio, Lightweight, Wood is healthy to have in a home.

Wood as an insulator?
Wood’s insulating capabilities are due to air pockets. The R value of wood is 1.2. Wood is 20X better insulator than concrete and 40X better than steel.

Fire resistance of wood?
The heat of a fire drives moisture into the center of wood. Char forms a protective layer. The world’s largest wood fire test was performed on a 2 story, 4 bay structure measuring 334 M² (3,595.15 F²). The building self-extinguished after 25 minutes.

How does wood frame construction stack up affordability wise compared to other methods?
Costs are comparable. Wood will be cheaper in the future. Price compared to carbon will be a win.

Environmental product declarations (EPDs)? EPDs for wood building products are similar to Nutrition Facts on Food Label. When comparing different products the use application needs to be the same, apples-to-apples. CWC publishes EPDs on a variety of wood products.

What type of wall design do you recommend for a Net Zero building?
Good wall, R30 insulation, wood frame + external insulation. Sheathing (OSB or plywood) to resist wind and earthquake. Best EPD is rockwool. Wood fiber insulation (both rigid and soft) are available and being made in the US. Diminishing returns beyond R30 wall.

Do wood treatments weaken wood? Telephone poles, permanent wood foundations in northern Canada use treated lumber. Wood foundations are used in Northern Canada due to unavailability of concrete, extra benefit mass timber may not be needed.

Robert Jonkman’s Final Thoughts & Comments:

• Wood is a buffer for excess moisture.
• Log frame homes are becoming more energy efficient.
• Bringing nature into hospitals through the use of exposed wood makes people feel better and heal faster.

Z-Man Signing Off


Trivia
Name the hard and durable wood that sinks in water due to its density, has a class A fire rating and was used to Build the Coney Island Boardwalk?

Answer: Ipe

Answered by: Doug Kohnen, ERAtech Environmental, 3508 Wilmington Pike, Kettering, OH 45429, United States
leesenter
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Re: Episode 705: Robert J. Jonkman, P. Eng - Building Science & Wood: A Balanced Design Approach

Post by leesenter »

On the subject of permeability and OSB.
We have seen over the last decade many tidbits from the building science industry that the permeability of OSB increases once it was saturated wet and then dried.
We also have qualitative evidence from the wood floor industry that chronic dampness to OSB causes it to lose strength, permeance and ability to hold cleats.

Now I know all the builder's group advocates are testing these items in the car wash at FPL and Virginia Tech etc.
I just have to wonder if it is worth the risk using OSB in tornado alleys or hurricane fraught areas.
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